Revista COMUNICACION

Segundo Trimestre


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Presentacion
Reacomodos Culturales
Reacomodos Culturales
Recursos





Comunicación  y Cultura resultan hoy día, por fuerza del contexto y sus variables no siempre pensadas lo suficiente y mucho menos atisbadas, una relación simbiótica. Estamos claros que la cultura es comunicación y viceversa, pero no siempre lo hemos reflexionado así. Hubo un tiempo en que ambos espacios-campos de mediación y “producción” fueron vistos como estancos independientes, con sus fronteras (artificiales, por supuesto) y límites. Hasta el tema de las políticas públicas se vio y se desarrollaron así. Los estados, y hasta las propias empresas y sus fundaciones, plantearon las políticas para la cultura y después para la comunicación como si ambas realidades de “producción simbólica” no tuvieran que ver absolutamente nada entre si. Incluso, se formularon políticas públicas de comunicación tan sólo en su “sentido instrumental” para la difusión de proyectos y realidades culturales, sin entender que la comunicación está en la cultura en cuanto intercambio, en cuanto proceso de producción de sentido y en cuanto la cultura le da significación al mundo y las realidades que en él se desarrollan y se viven. Además que las dimensiones culturales requieren de expresión, de intercambio, de conocimiento, de convivencia, de confluencia y todo eso sólo es posible desde la comunicación. De ahí que alguien dijera que “La cultura, tanto la alta cultura como la cultura menor y cotidiana, está construida de comunicación, no de información: cultura es la forma de entender el mundo, el proceso de darle sentido a la vida y, por tanto, es el modo de pensar y de sentir, el espíritu. Así que si se acepta que la música es cultura, que la arquitectura es cultura, que la escultura es cultura, que los modales en la mesa y los diseños de automóviles y la confección de modas también lo son, tendrá que aceptarse que son igualmente una forma de pensar y de sentir: que son comunicación” (Pablo Fernández Christlieb,2004).


 

            El tiempo nos fue enseñando desde los estudios culturales, la sociología de la cultura y desde todas las disciplinas que las presencias-realidades de comunicación y cultura eran campos fuertemente entrelazados. Y ahora, en estos tiempos del siglo XXI, en la sociedad de la comunicación/información la interrelación es más acentuada hasta llegar a confundirse y ser una misma práctica de vida cotidiana.


 

            Hechas estas consideraciones principistas, que requieren de un desarrollo más extenso y que sobrepasa las pocas líneas-caracteres de una presentación, es a lo que deseamos atender en esta nueva entrega de la revista. Su título de presentación es más que elocuente para entender desde dónde nos encaminamos: Reacomodos Culturales. Es que son tiempos de reacomodos en todos los sentidos de la vida, pero todo reacomodo implica una cuestión de tipo cultural en cuanto la cultura tiene que ver, como apuntamos antes, con la producción de sentido y de los sentidos que nos ayuda cual mapa de ruta de viaje para el día y para la noche como reza cierta pieza musical.


 

            En la primera parte-Entradas- de esta nueva entrega nos topamos con cinco trabajos en donde se aprecia claramente la relación de simbiosis entre cultura y comunicación. Cada autor la plantea desde su particular punto de vista y de ubicación investigativa. Así, la venezolana María Elena Ramos afirma, desde una óptica política y de la realidad que vive el país-hoy, que la cultura es abierta, amplia, ancha y nunca estrecha, mucho menos hegemónica y además impuesta desde el poder que desarrolla el actual proceso político que vive el país. El título del trabajo es muy claro al respecto: Cultura y totalitarismo: afirmación o negación de la persona. Por su parte, el argentino Néstor García Canclini nos ofrece, a manera de síntesis, cuáles han sido los encuentros y desencuentros entre ambas realidades –comunicación y cultura- más allá de los conceptos. Y Jesús Martín Barbero nos apunta como hoy la cultura y la comunicación, realidades ya entrelazadas y que resulta un lugar común, pueden ser piezas claves en los planes de cooperación para el desarrollo. Ambos textos fueron presentados en el seminario La cooperación cultura-comunicación en Iberoamérica (España, Madrid, marzo de 2007). Esta parte de la revista se cierra con el análisis, desde la cultura y la comunicación, de una expresión musical que atrapa a un sector de los jóvenes y a los que no son tan jóvenes, como es el reggaeton en cuanto “objeto cultural no identificado” nos dice su autor Luis Calzadilla. Finalmente, el acercamiento al mundo del consumo (que es también un acto de cultura y comunicación) desde lo que su autora Agrivalca Canelón denomina la “poética publicitaria”.


 

 

            Desde los Estudios, ofrecemos un primer trabajo que resulta ser una investigación exploratoria cuantitativa que lleva por título Nuevos medios para ¿Nuevas prácticas? de los autores Marcelino Bisbal y Pasquale Nicodemo. Ellos mismos nos dicen que hablar de medios de comunicación hoy nos remite a nuevos aparatos tecnológicos, así como a nuevos modos de percepción y lenguajes.”¿Qué nuevos medios posee la gente? ¿Qué tipo de uso se le están dando a esos nuevos medios? ¿Qué cambios se generan en las relaciones? ¿Desde donde se están produciendo esos usos?” Estas son las interrogantes que intenta indagar el artículo con el que abrimos la sección. La revista es y ha querido ser ambiciosa. De ahí que el joven investigador Carlos Delgado Flores se haya atrevido a plantear problemas, interrogantes que requieren de respuesta y de investigación, para una comprensión sociológica y venezolana del gusto. Se trata de un texto que rebasa los límites de un trabajo pionera en el tema como fue el de Roldan Esteva Grillet (Para una crítica del gusto en Venezuela). Los Estudios se cierran con un artículo-ensayo sobre la relación entre educación y comunicación como disciplina de estudio, de indagación y de acción. Se trata del texto Educomunicaciónb como interdisciplina de Gustavo Hernández, investigador este que es el que más ha trabajado y pensado seriamente, desde nuestra realidad venezolana, el tema.


 

            La revista no podía dejar pasar, tratándose de un número dedicado a los reacomodos culturales, el asunto de los “bloggers” que es un espacio que se hace presente gracias a las herramientas que provee internet. Sobre el tema de los “bloggers” y de los “bloggeros” y su incidencia en el periodismo de estos tiempos hay muchas preguntas que todavía están por responder. La sección Hablemos trató el tema con un grupo de “bloggeros” de nuestro ambiente y tratamos de responder a esas preguntas que tienen que ver con el surgimiento de un nuevo periodismo, de nuevos periodistas, de veracidad, de libertad de información… De allí todavía está pendiente lo que expresara Robert Cox quien es el presidente de la asociación de “bloggeros” de Estados Unidos (Media Bloggers Association): “Para los nuevos medios y los periodistas que trabajan en ellos se levantan dudas éticas, que hay que comenzar a plantear”.


 

            Y finalmente, después de las acostumbradas secciones de Reseñas de libros y revistas y de Informaciones ofrecemos un dossier sobre nuestra realidad venezolana tan signada en el presente por la relación entre comunicación y política. Tres trabajos le dan forma y contenido al dossier: el primero de ellos de Mariela Torrealba (1999 y 2007, de los inicios y la crisis de los partidos políticos en Venezuela), luego el informe de Ewald Scharfenberg sobre Medios de Comunicación y Política en Venezuela y para cerrar el trabajo de Antonio Pasquali sobre La libertad de recibir y emitir mensajes en el nuevo marco jurídico y político nacional.



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